Norbert Boruett-Innovating in Medical Education

9 replies to “Leadership theories

  1. Dear Sir,

    Please find attached my CAT 1 on Theories and Styles of Leadership. Take note of my registration number: SHS/BHS/469-3/2018

    Like

  2. AMREF INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY
    BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN HEALTH SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT
    HMD 213: PRINCIPLES AND THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
    ASSIGNMENT : CAT 2: THEORIES AND STYLES OF LEADERSHIP
    NAME: VICTOR SIMIYU WASILWA (SHS/BHS/469-03/2018)
    LECTURER: DR NOBERT BORUETT
    DATE:25/11/2019

    What is Leadership?
    Definition; Leadership is the ability to influence a group of people towards the achievement of goals.
    It can also be understood as the use of authority which is inherent in the designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members.
    There are a number of theories and styles and leadership and I will briefly explain the ten most important.
    1) The Great Man theory
    It was popularized in the 1840s by Thomas Carlisle and suggests that a leader is born not made that is some people are born to lead. A leader has some charisma which acts as an influence over his followers. Charismatic leaders are those who inspire followers through their personal vision and energy. An example of a charismatic leader is the late Bob Collymore who inspired the workers of Safaricom to take to company to greater heights.
    Limitations.
    • It implies that nothing can be done to develop leaders in an organization. The truth is that through training and development programs leaders can be developed
    • A charismatic leader may fail in a changed situation.

    2) The Trait Theory of Leadership
    Trait refers to the quality of an individual and persons having certain traits can become successful leaders.
    Some of the traits associated with great leadership include;
    – Intelligence
    – People skills
    – Decisiveness
    – Creativity
    – Competency
    – Trustworthiness

    3) The Skills Theory
    This theory set out to identify some key attributes that great leaders have. If you want people to follow you will need three basic skills;
    • Technical skills. You must be competent in the field that you want to become a leader in
    • People skills. You must be able to persuade people and also to have diplomacy
    • Conceptual skills. You must be able to see the big picture thus allowing you to be strategic
    4) The Style Theory of Leadership
    There are 4 main styles of leadership;
    • Autocratic
    • Democratic
    • Laissez-faire
    • Managerial Grid
    Autocratic Style:
    This can be summarized as “do x”. In this style the leader shows high levels of control.
    Advantages
    • It is effective for routine and unskilled jobs
    • It is also effective when we need to make quick decisions
    Disadvantages
    • Creativity is inhibited
    • Leads to high level of demotivation and workforce turnover
    Democratic Style
    This can be summarized as “which is best x or y”. The leadership style entails unanimity through participation. Everybody participates to come up with a solution to a problem.
    Advantages
    • Qualified team members can give ideas
    • Participation augments the organizations possibilities
    • Worker satisfaction is increased
    Disadvantages
    • Not good in situations where time is limited
    • Ineffective when team mates are not qualified
    Laissez-faire
    This can be summarized as “do x or y as you deem fit” . It works well in situations in which individual team members are very skilled.
    Managerial Grid
    Here we on the x-axis the concern for performance and on the y-axis concern for the workers. A balance has to be obtained in which the leader is “worker-friendly” but doesn’t compromise on “worker-performance”.

    5) The Situational Leadership Theory
    It was developed by Dr Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard. It states that there is no one “best style” of leadership. The best style will depend on the situation that is;
    • The task to be performed
    • The team performing it
    Therefore attention is given to the situation in which leadership is exercised. Certain traits, skills and styles fit better in one situation than another. The leader must be able to adapt. A good example could coaching a men’s football team versus coaching a woman’s football team. For the former a more disciplinarian approach would be adequate whereas a more friendly approach would be adequate for the latter.
    The factors affecting leadership effectiveness are.
    • Leaders behavior: This is influenced by personality, attitude, interests and position in the organization
    • Situational factors: these include organizational climate, organizational culture, group norms and group relationships

    6) The Contingency Theory of Leadership
    This model of leadership was created by Fielder in the mid-1960s. It states that there is no one best style of leadership. A leaders effectiveness is based on the situational factors;
    • Leadership style
    • Situational favorableness
    For Fielder the leadership style was fixed and he invented the LPC leadership style.
    Situational favorableness was based on three factors;
    • Leadership relations: trust and confidence
    • Task-structure: clear structure vs unclear structure
    • Leaders position power
    Effective leadership is “contingent” on matching the leaders style to the setting.

    7) The Transactional Theory of Leadership
    It is also known as managerial leadership. It relies on a system rewards and punishments to achieve optimal job performance.
    Characteristics
    • Extrinsic motivation
    • Practicality
    • Resistant to change
    • Discourages independent thinking
    Advantages
    • Helps in removing doubt
    • Helps in measuring success by setting clear guidelines
    • Clear and easy to understand framework structures
    • Helps in reducing costs
    • Increases productivity
    Disadvantages
    • Does not encourage creativity
    • Puts excessive reliance on knowledge and expertise of a single person
    • No flexibility to cater for emotions of employees
    8) The Transformational Theory of Leadership
    Here the leaders cultivate followership rather than paying for it or punishing non-compliance. It is more inspirational in nature.
    Characteristics
    • Inspirational motivation
    • Intellectual stimulation
    • Idealized influence
    • Individualized consideration
    Advantages
    • The communication of new ideas is easy
    • There is good balancing of short-term vision and long-term goals
    • There is integrity and high emotional intelligence
    Disdavantages
    • Ineffectiveness in ad-hoc situations
    • Need for an existing structure to fix
    • Easily manipulated by leaders
    • It has a bad fit in bureaucratic structures
    9) The Leader-Member Exchange Theory
    The exchange creates an in-group and an out-group. The in-group has the “power” whereas the our-group feels alienated and this lowers its performance.
    Leaders must address this problem of alienation because it ultimately leads to low performance.

    10) The Servant-Leadership Theory
    In this case people follow out of love and gratitude rather than out of compulsion and fear. It is characterized by “May I help you?”
    There is trust, cooperation, reciprocal service and higher performance.
    11) The Behavioral Theory
    It states that leadership is shown by a person’s acts more than by his or her traits. It also explains what leaders should do rather what leaders are.
    Leaders should perform 2 major functions.
    • Task related functions. These provide solutions to the problems faced by the groups
    • Group maintenance functions. These are actions of mediating disputes and ensuring that individuals feel valued.

    Like

      1. AMREF INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

        HMD 213: THEORIES AND STYLES OF LEADERSHIP
        PAPER TITLE: LEADERSHIP THEORIES AND VIDEOS

        NAME: ROBI FRED MWITA
        REG NO: SHS/BHS/508-3/2018

        TRIMESTER: 1
        12TH DECEMBER 2019.

        1. Management Theories
        Popularly known as transactional theories, management theory lays a lot of emphasis on supervision, organization and teamwork. The management theory establishes a system of reward and punishment, which means if you do well, you will be rewarded and if you don’t, you will be penalized.
        .
        2. Relationship Theories
        Relationship theory is also known as transformational leadership theories. It revolves around the bond between leader and follower. The stronger the bond the better will be the results. Transformational leaders inspire and motivate their followers and keep them on the same page.
        Such leaders usually have high ethical and moral values and would never compromise on these values irrespective of what the situation might be. They want to achieve their goal but also want each member of their team to contribute and perform at the potential.

        3. Behavioral Theories
        When it comes to leadership, the world is divided into two different camps. One thinks that leaders are made, while other camp believes that leaders are born. Behavioral theory sides with the people in the former camp and challenges the notion that leaders are born. As a result, it completely ignores all the qualities that set natural leaders apart from their trained counterparts. This theory puts its weight behind actions of leaders and advocates the fact that people can learn from their experience, observation and teachings to transform into a good leader.

        4. Participative Theories
        Leaders can be divided into two broad categories. One that follows the autocratic leadership style and makes decisions on their own. On the other end of the spectrum are those leaders who take input from others. Participatory theory backs the approach of the latter.
        Leaders who follow participative theory welcome suggestions from team members and encourages them to speak up. As a result, the team members think that they have their say in the decision-making process. Although, the leader reserve the right to stop taking input but in most cases, they don’t exercise that right.

        5. Trait Theories
        As the name suggests, leaders inherit certain leadership qualities and traits that make them stand out from the crowd. These leadership abilities propel them to leadership status. The trait theory focuses on these personality traits. For instance, commitment, integrity and confidence are characteristics that are usually associated with a great leader.
        By linking certain qualities with leadership, you are literally limiting its scope. What about people who possess these qualities but are not leaders. On the other hand, there are many examples of leaders who don’t possess these qualities but still lead the team well. Ronald Reagan summed it up brilliantly when he said, “The greatest leader is not one who does greatest things. He is the one that gets the people to do greatest things.”

        6. Situational Theories
        Situational leadership theories encourages leaders to act by critically analyzing the situation. It argues that instead of following a single leadership approach, leaders should change leadership approach based on the situation. For instance, there is a situation where a leader is the most knowledgeable and experienced, they should opt for an authoritarian style of leadership and take a decision on their own. On the flip side, they should let team members handle the situation if they are subject matter experts by following a democratic leadership style.

        7. Contingency Theories
        Contingency theory takes things to the next level and proposes leaders to take action based on certain variables instead of looking at the situation as a whole. Take all the variables influencing the situation into account before choosing a course of action.
        According to leadership experts White and Hodgson, “Effective leadership is about striking the right balance between needs, context and behavior.” Great leaders focus on the needs of the followers, analyze the situation and tweak their behavior accordingly. Success in leadership hinges on multiple factors such as leadership style, relationship with followers and the situation.

        Conclusion
        There are many theories on leadership and even within these theories, there are always variables that must be considered. The attempt to identify the skills and tactics of different leaders will always be an interesting study but there is no one true way to be a leader. Some characteristics of great leaders can be inherent while other are learned through experiences but there is no one true formula that makes a great leader. Every situation is different and leaders must learn to be flexible and they must have great analytical and communication skills to be successful in their roles.

        References
        Chemers, M. M., & Ayman, R. (Eds.). (1993). Leadership theory and research: Perspectives and directions. Academic Press.
        Clark, K. E., & Clark, M. B. (Eds.). (1990). Measures of leadership. Leadership Library of America.
        Ayman, R. (2004). Situational and contingency approaches to leadership. In J. Antonakis, A. T. Cianciolo, & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The nature of leadership (p. 148–170). Sage Publications, Inc.
        Allio, R. (2005), “Leadership development: teaching versus learning”, Management Decision, Vol. 43 No. 7/8, pp. 1071-1077.
        Arnold, K. and Loughlin, C. (2013), “Integrating transformational and participative versus directive leadership theories: Examining intellectual stimulation in male and female leaders across three contexts”, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 34 No. 1, pp. 67-84.
        Haire, M. (Ed.). (1959). Modern organization theory. John Wiley.

        Like

  3. AMREF INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

    HMD 213: THEORIES AND STYLES OF LEADERSHIP
    PAPER TITLE: LEADERSHIP THEORIES AND VIDEOS

    NAME: ROBI FRED MWITA
    REG NO: SHS/BHS/508-3/2018

    TRIMESTER: 1
    12TH DECEMBER 2019.

    1. Management Theories
    Popularly known as transactional theories, management theory lays a lot of emphasis on supervision, organization and teamwork. The management theory establishes a system of reward and punishment, which means if you do well, you will be rewarded and if you don’t, you will be penalized.
    .
    2. Relationship Theories
    Relationship theory is also known as transformational leadership theories. It revolves around the bond between leader and follower. The stronger the bond the better will be the results. Transformational leaders inspire and motivate their followers and keep them on the same page.
    Such leaders usually have high ethical and moral values and would never compromise on these values irrespective of what the situation might be. They want to achieve their goal but also want each member of their team to contribute and perform at the potential.

    3. Behavioral Theories
    When it comes to leadership, the world is divided into two different camps. One thinks that leaders are made, while other camp believes that leaders are born. Behavioral theory sides with the people in the former camp and challenges the notion that leaders are born. As a result, it completely ignores all the qualities that set natural leaders apart from their trained counterparts. This theory puts its weight behind actions of leaders and advocates the fact that people can learn from their experience, observation and teachings to transform into a good leader.

    4. Participative Theories
    Leaders can be divided into two broad categories. One that follows the autocratic leadership style and makes decisions on their own. On the other end of the spectrum are those leaders who take input from others. Participatory theory backs the approach of the latter.
    Leaders who follow participative theory welcome suggestions from team members and encourages them to speak up. As a result, the team members think that they have their say in the decision-making process. Although, the leader reserve the right to stop taking input but in most cases, they don’t exercise that right.

    5. Trait Theories
    As the name suggests, leaders inherit certain leadership qualities and traits that make them stand out from the crowd. These leadership abilities propel them to leadership status. The trait theory focuses on these personality traits. For instance, commitment, integrity and confidence are characteristics that are usually associated with a great leader.
    By linking certain qualities with leadership, you are literally limiting its scope. What about people who possess these qualities but are not leaders. On the other hand, there are many examples of leaders who don’t possess these qualities but still lead the team well. Ronald Reagan summed it up brilliantly when he said, “The greatest leader is not one who does greatest things. He is the one that gets the people to do greatest things.”

    6. Situational Theories
    Situational leadership theories encourages leaders to act by critically analyzing the situation. It argues that instead of following a single leadership approach, leaders should change leadership approach based on the situation. For instance, there is a situation where a leader is the most knowledgeable and experienced, they should opt for an authoritarian style of leadership and take a decision on their own. On the flip side, they should let team members handle the situation if they are subject matter experts by following a democratic leadership style.

    7. Contingency Theories
    Contingency theory takes things to the next level and proposes leaders to take action based on certain variables instead of looking at the situation as a whole. Take all the variables influencing the situation into account before choosing a course of action.
    According to leadership experts White and Hodgson, “Effective leadership is about striking the right balance between needs, context and behavior.” Great leaders focus on the needs of the followers, analyze the situation and tweak their behavior accordingly. Success in leadership hinges on multiple factors such as leadership style, relationship with followers and the situation.

    Conclusion
    There are many theories on leadership and even within these theories, there are always variables that must be considered. The attempt to identify the skills and tactics of different leaders will always be an interesting study but there is no one true way to be a leader. Some characteristics of great leaders can be inherent while other are learned through experiences but there is no one true formula that makes a great leader. Every situation is different and leaders must learn to be flexible and they must have great analytical and communication skills to be successful in their roles.

    References
    Chemers, M. M., & Ayman, R. (Eds.). (1993). Leadership theory and research: Perspectives and directions. Academic Press.
    Clark, K. E., & Clark, M. B. (Eds.). (1990). Measures of leadership. Leadership Library of America.
    Ayman, R. (2004). Situational and contingency approaches to leadership. In J. Antonakis, A. T. Cianciolo, & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The nature of leadership (p. 148–170). Sage Publications, Inc.
    Allio, R. (2005), “Leadership development: teaching versus learning”, Management Decision, Vol. 43 No. 7/8, pp. 1071-1077.
    Arnold, K. and Loughlin, C. (2013), “Integrating transformational and participative versus directive leadership theories: Examining intellectual stimulation in male and female leaders across three contexts”, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 34 No. 1, pp. 67-84.
    Haire, M. (Ed.). (1959). Modern organization theory. John Wiley.

    SHS/BHS /508-3/2018 VIDEO LINKS
    1. CONTINGENCY THEORY

    2. SITUATIONAL THEORY

    3. TRAIT THEORY

    4. BEHAVIORAL THEORY

    5. TRANSFORMATIONAL

    6. MANAGEMENT THEORIES

    7. PARTICIPATIVE THEORIES

    Like

Leave a Reply to ROBI FRED MWITA Cancel reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

%d bloggers like this:
close-alt close collapse comment ellipsis expand gallery heart lock menu next pinned previous reply search share star